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This section is a central online resource on current research and thought on issues concerning arts funding around the world. It provides access to selected online publications - including reports, studies, analyses, conference proceedings and papers, case studies, articles, and transcripts of interviews.


TOPICS

 

::: arts philanthropy


::: social investment


::: public and private funding policies / research


::: creative industries and entrepreneurship


::: artists' labor markets

research on arts and cultural economics

 

Search by topic, keyword, title, author, organization or publication date by using the search function at the top of the page; alternatively browse through the list on the right.

 



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::: ARCHIVES :::

 

To access our archives from 2000 - 2012 please contact:

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     :::  COMPENDIUM ON ARTS FUNDING  :::


AIF's Corporate Arts Philanthropy News


CAP Magazine Vol. 1 (2) 2017


in this issue:

the future of arts sponsorship

dossier: arts impact investing

driving development through culture in Zimwabwe


Read >





Leveraging Change: Increasing Access to Arts Education in Rural Areas


"Arts education is key to creative placemaking efforts as a core strategy for building creative capacity in young people and rural communities. This working paper shares highlights from the research, including impediments that prevent arts education from being fully utilized in rural areas, and promising practices for increasing access to arts education in rural areas. It also demonstrates the power of convening cross-sector groups in rural areas to increase access to arts education." Read more...


Working Paper, Massachusetts College of Liberal ArtsDr. Lisa Donovan, Maren Brown, May 2017






Culture and Inclusive Growth in World Cities: Seizing the Opportunity

 

“Senior policymakers from member cities met in London over a three-day programme for the annual World Cities Culture Summit. This is the fourth policy briefing of the World Cities Culture Forum, based on the collective knowledge and latest evidence assembled at event. The key issues discussed ranged from the urban growth and gentrification challenges of the last two decades, to the new possibilities of technology within urban cultural life. The policy briefing presents the conversations around these challenges, as well as possible solutions shared by forum members at the London Summit.” Read more...


World Cities Culture Forum, Policy Briefing

 


 

Art & Finance Report 2016


A closer look at the growing Art & Finance industry


“This annual report aims to act as a barometer for the emerging Art and Finance industry, to highlight the main trends and developments, but also to capture and measure the changing motivations and perceptions among its participants.” Read more...

 

Deloitte Luxembourg, Art & Finance, 2016

 



National Arts Index

 

“This annual report measures the health and vitality of the arts in the U.S.  With 113,000 nonprofit arts organizations employing 2.2 million artists in the workforce, the arts are a strong force in our economy!” Read more...

 

Americans for the Arts, March 2016

 


 


The Summit on Creativity and Aging in America


“The Summit on Creativity and Aging is a new report looks at how the federal government can leverage the arts to foster healthy aging and inclusive design for this growing population. This white paper features recommendations from the May 2015 Summit on Creativity and Aging in America, a convening of more than 70 experts hosted by the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Center for Creative Aging. The paper highlights recommendations on healthy aging, lifelong learning in the arts, and age-friendly community design. The summit was a precursor to the 2015 White House Conference on Aging, which addressed four major issues: retirement security, long-term services and supports, healthy aging, and elder abuse.” Read more...

 

National Endowment for the Arts, 2016

 



Understanding the value of arts & culture - The AHRC Cultural Value Project

 

“Why do the arts and culture matter? What difference do they make and how do we know what difference they make? This report presents the outcomes of the AHRC’s Cultural Value Project which looked at how we think about the value of the arts and culture to individuals and to society.” More...


Arts and Humanities Research Council, April 2016



 


The Culture White Paper

 

“This white paper builds on what has gone before. It is not a revolution but an evolution. It recognises the importance of political leadership at national, regional and local levels, as well as leadership within and across the cultural sectors and beyond. It is a vision of culture in action – of culture that is rejuvenating our society and our national and local economies.” More...

 

UK Department for Culture, Media and SportMarch 2016





The global map of cultural and creative industries


“The idea behind this report is that the economic weight of cultural and creative industries (CCI) in mature and emerging economies is partially described, misunderstood and undervalued. This is why the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC — the body representing authors’ societies worldwide) — decided to commission a global study of the economic and social impact of CCI, focusing especially upon revenues and employment.“ More...


Ernst & Young, CISAC, December 2015




Cultural policy and the public funding of culture in an international perspective


“This special issue on cultural policy in an international perspective brings together experts in various fields to discuss two main themes: the social forces that drive persistence and change in public spending on culture over time and the contours of emerging models of public cultural spending. The two themes are discussed from different angles and with different emphases rooted in country contexts. This editorial outlines the common themes across the papers in the special issue and concludes by setting an agenda for future research. More… (abstract only)


Poetics, Volume 49, April 2015

 




Public Funding for the Arts: 2015 Update

 

2015 marked a third straight year of increased public funding for the arts when accounting for federal, state, and local sources. In each year since 2012, aggregate figures have increased, though gains have come only from state and local appropriations and expenditures. Federal funds have remained nearly unchanged, while state and local funds are slowly increasing again in the wake of the Great Recession.  More...


GIA Reader, Vol 26, No 3 (Fall 2015)

 




Understanding the Value and Impacts of Cultural Experiences  - Literature Review

 

“This review, commissioned by Arts Council England, examines two related branches of this literature: 1) how individuals benefit from attending and participating in cultural programmes and activities; and 2) the creative capacities of arts and cultural organisations to bring forth impactful programmes.” More...

 

Arts Council of England, 2015




General Mapping of Types of Impact Research in the Performing Arts Sector

 

"Alongside data about easily quantifiable (and traditionally measured) aspects such as attendance, ticket sales, number of productions etc., the sector is now expected to provide figures about job creation, market development and competitiveness. Other aspects much less easy to quantify, but already proven as crucial and specific to the arts, like the impact on individual well-being, community development and social cohesion, are required to be translated into numbers – and sometimes regarded as less important than economic aspects." More...


IETM, 2015




Cabo Verde’s Creative Economy Leveraging Culture and Creativity for Sustainable Development

 

"The Creative Economy has shown sustainable growth in recent decades, demonstrating its ability to withstand the economic crisis and to stimulate a youth entrepreneurial culture. The world trade of creative goods and services reached a record level in 2011 -624 billion dollars according to UNCTAD.1 At the same time, the creative economy is a great driver for job creation and social inclusion, due to the large production chains within the creative industries" More...

 

UNCTAD, 2015




Enriching Britain: Culture, Creativity and Growth


The 2015 Report of the Warwick Commission on the Future of Cultural Values


"The key message from this report is that the government and the cultural and creative industries need to take a united and coherent approach that guarantees equal access for everyone to a rich cultural education and the opportunity to live a creative life. There are barriers and inequalities in Britain today that prevent this from being a universal human right. This is bad for business and bad for society".

Vikki Heywood CBE, Chairman of the Warwick Commission on the Future of Cultural Value


READ MORE...



 

Beyond the Numbers

Report, IETM, 2015


READ...




Public Funding for the Arts: 2014 Update


Grantmakers in the Arts, 2014


“Public funding for the arts in the United States is most readily quantified through current and historical funding allocations to the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), the nation’s state arts agencies, and direct expenditures by local governments. Investments in and through these agencies have been the primary mechanisms for direct public support of the arts for nearly fifty years.

Fiscal year 2014 marked a year of aggregate increases at all three levels: state, local, and federal. This is the first time in six years that all three public funding sources increased over the prior fiscal year. Long-term fiscal pressures on government budgets remain, and revenue gains vary widely by geography. However, recent aggregate increases in arts funding and better economic conditions point to an improved environment for arts funding.” More…





Report on the Role of Public Arts and Cultural Institutions in the Promotion of Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue


European Union, 2014

 

“By becoming spaces for deepening the understanding of different cultures and providing room for participative and creative encounters, cultural institutions may, in our opinion, play a pivotal role in connecting people and in building a more cohesive and open society.


Besides, cultural institutions need to engage broader parts of the population to serve their core mission of ensuring the transfer of cultural heritage across generations. Who will look after the existing heritage or develop exciting new and inclusive activities, if many people from different constituent parts of our contemporary society, and especially children and young people, are not engaged? Becoming vehicles for social cohesion is not only a moral obligation for cultural institutions receiving public funding; it is also essential for their long-term survival.” More…




Understanding the value and impacts of cultural experiences


International Literature Review, Arts Council England, 2014

 

"This review helps us understand how others have asked or considered the question ‘what value do personal experiences of art and culture have for people?’ in the past, and to contribute towards our knowledge in this area. The focus for the report was on academically-robust research and influential policy papers from the past 20 years. It provides a good overview of the commonly known frameworks and methodological approaches that have been used to investigate how individuals have been affected by their experience of arts and culture. It also addresses value and quality from an organizational perspective: what do organisations that engage people in impactful experiences look like? How can the quality of organizations as a whole be addressed?" More…





Europe‘s creative hubs

 

Enders Analysis / Bertelsmann, 2014

 

Creative consumers are of great value to society, even if this value is not directly quantifiable. The ideas people are exposed to shape their identities, aspirations and relations to others and the world, at home, at work and on the move. Creative experiences help meet societal goals such as participation in democratic processes and promotion of social inclusiveness. Surrounded as they are by the products and services of the creative industries, whose purchase is a significant component of household budgets, 100 million consumers in France, Germany and the UK view the creative industries as ‘important’ or ‘very important’ to the economy.“  More…




 

Well-Being in Four Policy Areas


Report by the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Wellbeing Economics, UK, Sept 2014

 

"Wellbeing analysis provides a way of capturing the value that arts and culture have for human lives – an alternative to assessment based on instrumental benefits on the one hand, and ‘art for art’s sake’ on the other.  It is therefore a particularly useful tool for assessing public subsidy of arts and culture. Experiencing arts and culture has demonstrable positive impacts on wellbeing, both directly and indirectly (e.g. through improved physical health). This is particularly true of participatory (as opposed to purely spectator) activities. Wellbeing evidence can also help policymakers to assess the impact of arts subsidy on wellbeing inequalities." More…




Cultural Capital Counts: Cultural Resources Strategy for Sustainable Regional Development


ERDF, 2014


“The strategy presented here is based upon the long-term, sustainable exploitation or, as it is called here, valorisation of the cultural resources of a particular area”More…





Funding the arts in austere times (video)


"Arts funding in austere times: public and private money. There is a view that the model of state funding for arts in the UK is bloated, London-centric and ripe for replacement by more generous private backing seen in places like the USA." External link ...





Critical steps toward capital health in the cultural sector


Nonprofit Finance Fund, 2014


“This practical guide offers cultural organizations and their supporters a set of action-oriented tips for strengthening capitalization in ways essential to artistic and organizational resiliency. When applied thoughtfully, in concert with strong financial planning and management, they offer the most direct route to building financially healthy organizations that can adapt to their changing circumstances.” More…



10 Reasons to Support the Arts


Americans for the Arts, 2014

 

Packed with solid talking points, this is your go-to resource for the newest, freshest content for supporting the arts to any and all constituencies. And it’s a great reminder of why we do what we do!” More…




Culture Counts


World Bank, 2014


“In a rapidly globalizing world, cultural traditions and cultural heritage assets are at risk of being forgotten as local and national societies adopt modern ways of living, producing, consuming and communicating. (...) Their attractiveness and significance can become important vehicles for social and economic development via cultural tourism and sustainable practices.” More…




The China Cultural and Creative Industries Reports 2013

 

“'The China Cultural and Creative Industries Reports 2013’ is an overview of China’s cultural and creative industries (CCIs) written by Chinese academics but now available in English to a global audience. It is designed to address the gaps in the existing literature, including policy changes, emerging trends and investment opportunities of the CCIs in China to help individuals, businesses and organisations wanting to compete in this area.” More...



 

The Value of Arts and Culture to People and Society – An Evidence Review

Arts Council of England, 2014

"Representing the latest research on the impact and value of arts and culture on our economy, health and well-being, society and education." More…




Counting what Counts. What Big Data Can Do For The Cultural Sector


Magic Lantern, 2013


“Big data can do much more than improve the accountability of public funds. However, to truly understand the benefits which improved use of data could bring, we need to understand more about the narrative of both investment and subsidy which pervades the cultural ecosystem and the effects of this narrative on the rationale for the collection of data today.”  More…






The Orange Economy – An Infinite Opportunity


Inter-American Development Bank, 2013


This manual has been designed and written with the purpose of introducing key concepts and areas of debate around the “creative economy,” a valuable development opportunity that Latin America, the Caribbean and the world at large cannot afford to miss. The creative economy, which we call the “Orange Economy” in this book (you’ll see why), encompasses the immense wealth of talent, intellectual property, interconnectedness, and, of course, cultural heritage of the Latin American and Caribbean region (and indeed, every region). More…




Change Capital in Action: Lessons from Leading Arts Organizations


Nonprofit Finance Fund, 2013


"This report shares the results of a five-year program that has invested change capital in ten leading performing arts organizations to support and sustain their business and artistic adaptation. It features (...), profiles of individual change efforts, participants financial and program outcomes, and lessons relevant for arts organizations and funders alike."  More...

 



Inspiring Creativity: Promoting Culture and Creative Industries across Europe


Interact, 2013


"Learn more about how European Territorial Cooperation programmes are supporting CCI projects in the current period. “The last section of the publications provides and outlook to the next funding period referring to funding opportunities, tips form CCI projects for newcomers and statements of ETC managers on cultural projects in the future.”   More...




Creative Economy Report Special Edition 2013 – Widening Local Development Pathways


UNESCO, UNDP, 2013

  

„There is an urgent need to find new development pathways that encourage creativity and innovation in the pursuit of inclusive, equitable and sustainable growth and development” (…) “the Creative Economy Report (…) explores diverse pathways to development through the cultural and creative industries and analyses the ways in which they can be strengthened and widened to achieve the expected results of inclusive social and economic development. It recognizes that many of these pathways are to be found at the subnational level in cities and regions.” More...





Review of Key Findings and Achievements: Culture and Development


MDG Achievement Fund, 2013

 

"Conditions conducive to a more dynamic cultural sector, which can enhance its contribution to the achievement of international development objectives, could be strengthened by better integrating cultural development support into broader economic strategies and diversifying funding sources ( ….)." More...


 


 

US Federal, State, and Local Government Support for the Arts, 1994–2013


Americans for the Arts, 2013, Research Report


“After 4 consecutive years of decline, local and state government arts funding both show modest growth in 2013.” More...

 



How Cities Can Nurture Cultural Entrepreneurs


Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2013, Policy Brief

 

American cities have explored new ways of supporting artists that include space provision, artist-targeted websites and marketing projects, incorporating artistic work into city enterprises, and entrepreneurial training programs tailored to the realities of arts and design as occupations. This policy brief summarizes reasons for and variations in new initiatives to spark cultural entrepreneurship, sampling bottom-up experiments and providing a menu of options for cities of all sizes and character. The brief also counsels city leaders to focus on what is distinctive about their cities, rather than replicating generic strategies elsewhere (e.g. large, expensive arts venues). Via references for further reading, it directs city leaders to various resources for exploring place-appropriate creative entrepreneurship policies.” More...

 



World Cities Culture Report 2013


Mayor of London, World Cities Culture Initiative

 

“This report examines the cultural offer of 21 of the world’s greatest cities. It gathers  evidence on 60 cultural indicators, assessing both  the supply of and demand for culture, and reports  on the thinking of cultural policymakers in those places. The level of detail of the cultural data collected across the cities is unprecedented, and represents the primary achievement of this research.” More...




The contribution of the arts and culture to the national economy


Report for Arts Council England and the National Museums Directors’ Council, Centre for Economics and Business Research Ltd., May 2013, England

 

“An analysis of the macroeconomic contribution of the arts and culture and of some of their indirect contributions through spillover effects felt in the wider economy. (…)” More…

 



 

Private-Sector Philanthropy

 

Americans for the Arts Research Report, 2013

 

Giving to the arts by individuals, foundations, and corporations grew 7.8 percent (5.7 percent when adjusted for inflation) to $14.4 billion in 2012—representing 4.6 percent of all charitable giving.” More...




Final Report: Round Table on Culture and Sustainable Development in SIDS and the Post-2015 Agenda


UNESCO, July 2013


Some 20 participants representing countries, civil society organizations and development partners took part in the Round Table at which they shared information on the latest developments in the global debate on culture and sustainable development, in particular the Hangzhou Declaration and its implications for Small Island Developing States (SIDS).” More…


 


 

Responding to the crisis with culture: Towards new governance & business models for the cultural sector


ENCTAC, Summary of policy debate, July 2013

 

“…Arts-cultural institutions and organisations find themselves at a turning point where new ways of managing and funding culture need to be explored”. More…

 



 

Where is Private Investment to the Arts Going? 

Arts & Business Private Investment in Culture Survey


2011/12, UK

  

„This survey looks at the extent of private sector support and investment in culture in England in 2011/12, marking the 5th year of minimal growth in the UK economy since the day, in 2008, when Damien Hirst  had an auction sale at Sotheby’s and Lehman Brothers collapsed. This year’s survey shows a relatively modest rise in total private sector investment of 7.6%. When compared to the state of the economy, however, this looks like a remarkably robust show of support for culture. Two main concerns arise from the figures. First, the increasing dominance of cultural organisations based in London in terms of who is raising the most money. Second, the increasing reliance on Trust and Foundation support.” More...



 

The BCA National Survey of Business Support for the Arts


Americans for the Arts, Survey, 2013


This most recent survey shows an increase in business support for the arts, bringing us back to near 2006 levels. However, there is still more work to be done. In 2012, we launched the pARTnership Movement (www.pARTnershipMovement.org) to provide businesses and arts organizations with the tools they need to create meaningful partnerships that support a healthy, creative, and artistic community, but that also give businesses a competitive advantage. The pARTnership Movement demonstrates how the arts can help businesses enhance the critical thinking and creative skills of their workforce and how arts organizations can develop new, innovative business strategies. Together, they can advance the communities in which they live and work in new and resourceful ways.” More...




A Measure of the Vitality of Arts and Culture in England


2013 Edition, The National Campaign for the Arts - Arts Index


„The way the arts are funded in this country is changing. The mixture of private and public support the arts receive is changing. So is the type of public support. Now, more than ever, the Arts Index is needed to track those changes.” More...



 

Report on Export and Internationalisation Strategies for the Cultural and Creative Industries


European Expert Network on Culture, April 2013

 

„The study places the theme of export and internationalisation strategies for CCIs at the intersection of a number of evolving trends and interests in Europe. There is a growing  recognition of the value and potential of the ‘creative economy’ which is bringing non-profit arts and cultural organisations, creative businesses, commercial producers and distributors of creative content and related intellectual property rights within a shared creative ‘ecosystem’. The process of engaging with the export and international potential of the CCIs is simultaneously galvanised and challenged by globalisation and digitisation, by a speeding up of external economic forces and fast-evolving consumption and communication habits that disregard slower policy and planning timeframes, by shifting patterns in the economic realities of so-called developed, developing and transitional markets worldwide.” More…

 



 

Digital R&D Fund for Arts and Culture: Case studies from the pilot


Nesta, February 2013, UK

 

The Digital Research and Development Fund for Arts and Culture was a pilot project between the Arts Council England, Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and Nesta, to support arts and cultural organisations across England who want to work with digital technologies to: expand their audience reach and engagement and/or explore new business models.” More…


 


 

Arts Council of England, Annual review 2013

 

Arts Council of England, July 2013

 

 



The Arts and Individual Well-Being in Canada


Hill Strategies, January 2013, Canada

 

The data in the report show that there is a strong connection between 18 cultural activities and eight indicators of health and well-being (such as health, mental health, volunteering, feeling stressed, and overall satisfaction with life). Cultural participants have significantly better results than non-participants for 101 out of 144 cross-tabulations (or 70%). Cultural participants have significantly worse results for only 10 of the cross-tabulations (or 7%).“ More…




 

Guide to Funding Opportunities for the International Mobility of Artists and Culture Professionals


On the Move, Interarts, March 2013, Belgium

 

The subject of analysis includes the funding schemes supporting the mobility of artists and culture professionals existing in EU member states, EU candidate countries and other members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).” More…

 



 

The Economic Contribution of Culture

Executive Summary


Australian Bureau of Statistics, June 2013, Australia

 

“Stakeholders have identified three major needs from Australian cultural and creative activity satellite accounts: to measure the economic value of this segment of the economy; monitor its economic viability and reliance on volunteers and financial support from Government; and understand its linkages to the rest of the economy. This translates to a need for headline outcome measures for Australia and individual states and territories, for detail on the composition of those headline measures, and for a supply-use table that can be used for supply chain analyses.“ More…

 



 

Monitoring of Selected Economic Key Data on Culture and Creative Industries 2011

 

Cultural and Creative Industries Initiative of the Federal Government, Germany, June 2013

 

“Culture and creative industries are not only important

for the generation of value added in Germany, the sector

also provides models for future forms of work and life.

It is part of a future knowledge- and content-oriented

society. The culture and creative industries show important

structural characteristics which can and will be introduced in other economic branches in the future” More…




 

NEA Arts Data Profile Series: Issue 1: "Equal Opportunity Data Mining: National Statistics about Working Artists"


National Endowment for the Arts, June 2013, USA

 

“There are 2,081,735 million artists in the United States, identified by the occupation to which they which devoted the most hours in a given week. These artists fall into one of 11 occupations, and together they compose 1.35 percent of the total workforce.“ More…


 



A Manifesto for the Creative Economy

 

Nesta, April 2013, UK

 



 

Volunteers and Donors in Arts and Culture Organizations in Canada in 2010


Hill Strategies Research Inc., March 2013, Canada

 

Many arts and culture organizations in Canada are organized as not-for-profit organizations and rely on individuals to donate time or money in order to help achieve their mandates. Volunteers and Donors in Arts and Culture Organizations in Canada in 2010, the 40th report in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series, highlights the volunteer time and financial donations given to Canadian arts and culture organizations. The report is based on statistics that Hill Strategies Research queried from Statistics Canada’s 2010 Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (CSGVP), a survey of more than 15,000 Canadians 15 or older.“ More…




 

Developing Partnerships in Creative Industries of Northern Dimension 

(Russian and English)


Nordic Council of Ministers, March 2013, Russia

 

What do the Creative Industries need? — Barriers and Possibilities for Growth in the Creative Industries in Denmark” (CKO, 2011) reveals that, compared to other industries, creative companies more often are, or work to become, internationally oriented; intellectual property rights are more often the mainstay of the company; they have longer planning horizon and similar ambitions for growth.” More…


 


 

Arts Philanthropy: Towards a Better Practice Model


Asia Pacific Social Impact Leadership Centre, Melbourne Business School, February 2013, Australia

 

Current philanthropic relationships in the arts tend to be at the more traditional end of the philanthropic spectrum of giving. This approach to grant making contributes to both philanthropists and arts organisations experiencing frustration in regard to the lack of philanthropic funds available and the allocation mechanism used to distribute these funds.” More…

 

 


 

Counting What Counts: What big data can do for the cultural sector


NESTA, February 2013, UK

 

The current approach to the use of data in the cultural sector is out-of-date and inadequate. The sector as a whole and the policy and regulatory bodies which oversee it are already failing to make the most of the considerable financial and operational benefits which could arise from better use of data. In addition, a significant opportunity to better understand and possibly increase the cultural and social impact of public expenditure is going begging. It is high time for a step-change in the approach of arts and cultural bodies to data and for them to take up and build on the management of so-called "big data" in other sectors.” More…

 

 


 

A Dynamic Mapping of the UK’s Creative Industries


NESTA, December 2012, UK

 

This paper argues that, despite its strengths, the UK Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) classification of the creative industries contains inconsistencies which need to be addressed to make it fully fit for purpose. It presents an improved methodology which retains the strengths of the DCMS's approach while addressing its deficiencies. We focus on creative intensity: the proportion of total employment within an industry that is engaged in creative occupations.” More…



 



Politics, reviews and support for the arts: an analysis of government expenditures on the arts in Australia from 1967 to 2009

 

Australian Review of Public Affairs, August 2013, Australia


„This paper uses econometric modeling to examine the relationships between Australian federal government arts expenditure and the political persuasion of the government and government reviews of the arts and cultural sector. The research adds to a number of international studies that have examined cultural expenditures in the United States of America, Austria and in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation (OECD) and found little evidence that the political persuasion of the government had an impact on the level of cultural expenditures. Our results express expenditure relative to total government outlays, and similarly find no consistent evidence of a correlation between political persuasion of the government and funding for the arts—however correlations are observed between government instigated reviews and arts expenditures.“ More…




  

Measuring the Economic Contribution of Cultural Industries


 

UNESCO Institute of Statistics, January 2013

 

“In Germany, enterprise from cultural and creative industries represented 7.4% of the value added to the economy in 2009. In Mali the cultural sector contributed 2.38% to the GDP in 2006. However, there are few cross-nationally comparable statistics and methodologies to quantify the effect of these industries at the global level. “ More…